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the-day-will-come Updated to Celebrate the 125th Anniversary of May Day, May 1st, 2011
Edited by Mark Rogovin

"No single event has influenced the history of labor in Illinois, the United States, and even the world, more than the Chicago Haymarket Affair.  It began with a rally on May 4, 1886, but the consequences are still being felt today. Although the rally is included in American history textbooks, very few present the event accurately or point out its significance." --Bill Adelman

Introduction
We were excited about launching this project because of the rich history—the lessons to be learned, the campaigns that were fought, the battles, and the memories that are revealed in these stories. Certainly it is not alone the history of the latter 19th century that we study, but the setbacks and victories that continue until today. For us and for many others around the world, this cemetery is sacred ground!

Marker-B-Goldman Emma-Goldman We invite you to look beyond the stereotypes of communists and anarchists...and to understand these important working class heroes—their drive for peace and justice, for strong and democratic unions, and the impact their struggles have had on our present-day society.

We welcome you to make use of these rich historic resources which provide students and family members a stepping-off  point for endless discussions to be waged and research papers to be written on the history of Haymarket, the Palmer Raids, Spanish Civil War, House Un-American Activities Committee and other important historical events often left out of history books.

palmsandlaurels2 The Restoration of the Haymarket Monument
This updated edition and online document is dedicated to commemorating the 125th anniversary of Haymarket. Over the past decades, there was theft of the monuments bronze laurel wreaths. For this special anniversary, the ILHS is raising money to have a complete restoration of the monument. Please help the Illinois Labor History Society maintain the monument and its living history by making a donation to the organization today.

We welcome your feedback
monument-altgeld The information and stories gathered here come from books, news clippings, archives, and written and oral remembrances. Errors and inaccuracies are inevitable, and in some cases the information at hand is inadequate. Can you help us? If you can fill in some gaps, please drop us a note and tell us what you know. Please email your corrections and comments to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or write to the Illinois Labor History Society 27 E. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, Illinois 60604 or 312-663-4107.

We encourage you to contact the Illinois Labor History Society if you know of someone not included in this document. Please provide biographical information and your contact information. As additional burials and ashes scattered are identified, updates will appear in the online version.

Enjoy the tour on foot or online

Using this booklet as you walk through Forest Park Cemetery.....

There are numerous references to the Communist Party USA, Young Communist League and the Industrial Workers of the World. Within this document we will use the acronyms CPUSA, YCL and IWW.

Enjoy your tour!

 

Eddie Balchowsky Gertrude Berger Fred H. Bergmann Clara Bielefeld
Frank C. Bielefeld Hermine Bielefeld Hermine "Minnie" Bielefeld Arthur Boose
Greta Lindquist Bradley Myron Reed "Slim" Brundage Ellen R. Budow Charles G. Burroughs



3. Eddie Balchowsky 03-Balchowsky_Eddie

(1916-1989) Grave 3, Sector G

A working-class poet, artist, musician and veteran of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, Eddie Balchowsky was, in the words of Studs Terkel, "Chicago's Huck Finn." Balchowsky grew up in Frankfort, Illinois, of Jewish parents who had emigrated from Poland.

After studying music at the University of Illinois, he responded to the call of Republican Spain and went there to fight Franco's fascism. Eddie lost his right hand and forearm in battle. His disability never vanquished his impulse to play music and Eddie learned to play beautifully with his left hand. He was also a gifted painter and writer. Intimately familiar with Chicago's neighborhood cafes and their downtrodden patrons, Balchowsky liked to call himself the "King of the Alleys."

Gertrude Berger

(1911-2000) [ashes scattered]

Born into a progressive Yiddish speaking family, Gertrude, first known as Gittel, attended Illinois Normal School for teachers.

Gert joined the Teachers Union and the CPUSA in 1937. She was an outspoken advocate of school desegregation and quality education for all children and was elected to the Chicago Teachers Union House of Delegates from Hayt School where she taught primary grades. Gert especially loved the kindergartners. Gertrude was a founding member of Concerned Rank and File Teachers, United Action Caucus, and the Labor Community Coalition to Save Public Education.

Gert was active in the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom and the Coalition of Labor Union Women. She worked her Rogers Park neighborhood for the 1983 election of Harold Washington as mayor of Chicago.

4. Fred H. Bergmann 04-Bergman_Fred

(1857-1928) Grave 4,  Sector A

Little information on Fred H. Bergmann is available at the present time. He was believed to have been involved with the anarchist daily Arbeiter-Zeitung. Marie Bergmann (1845-1917) and Elizabeth Bergmann (1876-1911) are also in the plot and we have found no information on their connection to Fred Bergmann.

5. Clara Bielefeld 05-Bielefeld_Clara

(1869-1935) Grave 5, Sector A

Clara Bielefeld and her sister Hermine "Minnie" are the daughters of Hermine and Frank C. Bielefeld. To the north are gravestones for Clara's mother and sister. More information on the Bielefelds is needed.

6. Frank C. Bielefeld

(1837-1911) Grave 6, Sector A [unmarked grave]

In the lot of Hermine Bielefeld, an unmarked grave exists for Frank Bielefeld, her husband and a key person relating to the activities surrounding the Haymarket incident. This grave is one of a number of unmarked graves in Radical Row where careful investigation of the deeds and lots led to this "discovery."

Before emigrating to the U.S., Frank Bielefeld had been a Prussian officer. In the U.S. he served in the Union army in the Civil War. Bielefeld was the Captain of Chicago's Lehr-und Wehr-Verein (Instruction and Protection Society), "a trade union militia organization founded in Chicago in 1875 whose mission was to defend unionists against police and industry thugs." The organization "resolved never again to be shot and beaten without resistance. Nor would they stand idly by while their meeting places were invaded or their wives and children assaulted."

Frank Bielefeld was one of the signatories to the 1886 document "To All Friends of an Administration of Justice in Chicago." During the period of the martyrs' trial, Bielefeld became business manager of the anarchist daily, Arbeiter-Zeitung.

6. Hermine Bielefeld 06-Bielefeld_Hermine

(1847-1892) Grave 6,  Sector A

This lot contains multiple burials, ashes interred and several gravestones. Four of those interred have been determined to belong to a single family, consisting of Frank and Hermine Bielefeld, who were husband and wife, and 2 of their daughters, Clara (1869-1935) and Hermine. The newer gravestone to the west is for Hermine "Minnie" Bielefeld (1884-1932). Five feet to the east is a badly worn marble gravestone for the mother and wife, Hermine Bielefeld (1847-1892). At this moment we know only that Hermine (1883-1892) was married to Frank C. Bielefeld (1847-1892). Also buried or ashes interred are Walter Bielefeld (1886-1890) and Fred Reichow ( ? -1896).

7. Hermine "Minnie" Bielefeld 07-Bielefeld_Hermine_Minnie

(1884-1932) Grave 7, Sector A

More information is needed.

Arthur Boose

(1878-1959) [ashes scattered]

Wobbly soapboxer and organizer Arthur Boose was affectionately known to fellow workers throughout the U.S. as "Old War Horse Boose." Influenced by Lucy Parsons, he joined the IWW in1909 and remained in the IWW until his death. A decade later his ashes were brought to Forest Home cemetery and scattered at a May Day gathering.

8. Greta Lindquist Bradley 08-Bradley_Greta_Lindquist

(1952-1989) Grave 8, Sector B

Bradley was born on Chicago's south side of immigrant parents. Her maternal grandparents were Welsh socialists and played an important part in her life. As a teenager, Bradley decided that she too was socialist. Upon entering college she joined the International Socialists, later leaving it when it splintered in a factional dispute. She later joined and became a board member of Chicago's Third Unitarian Church, serving for a while as chairperson of the church's social action committee.

9. Myron Reed "Slim" Brundage

(1903-1990) Grave 9, Sector D [ashes interred]

Described in the press as a farm hand, janitor, historian and tax resister, Slim Brundage was born in a mental hospital in Idaho. He worked as a mill hand, piano mover, and organizer for the IWW, and for most of his years was a house painter. When he arrived in Chicago, he obtained work as a bartender at the irreverent Dill Pickle Club. During Prohibition, he spent 30 days in jail for serving liquor at the Club to two federal agents. In the 1950's and 1960's Brundage owned pubs under the College of Complexes name at several Chicago sites. Each one served as an open forum for intellectuals, poets, politicians and folk singers. Blackboards were part of the décor, as patrons were encouraged to express themselves at will.

10. Ellen R. Budow 10-Budow_Ellen

(1952-1974) Grave 10, Sector B

An anti-Vietnam war activist at Evanston Township High School, Ellen Budow went on to study art and art history at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She was jailed for organizing a campaign for better working conditions for food service workers on campus. Later in Massachusetts, she was a United Electrical Workers (UE) organizer and labor activist. Her early death was the result of a misdiagnosis of pneumonia.

Charles G. Burroughs

(1919-1994) [ashes scattered]

Burroughs was born in Brooklyn, NY and in 1928 his mother Williana, a teacher and member of the CPUSA, took her two sons to the Soviet Union. There they remained through secondary school. He became an apprentice toolmaker and later worked for the Soviet circus. Known as "Charley," he was fluent in Russian and a scholar of the great Russian poet and writer Pushkin. He loved reciting Pushkin in his gravely base voice. In 1945, he was drafted into WWII. He returned to the U.S. and graduated from Roosevelt University in American history.

Charley moved to Chicago and married Margaret Goss, a school teacher. In 1961, he and Margaret Burroughs founded the DuSable Museum of African-American History in the living and dining room of their home. He served as the Museum's first curator. In 1973 the DuSable Museum moved to its permanent home in Washington Park, in Chicago's South Side.

Charles is author of 2 books of poetry; Home and More Poems.

   

Voltairine de Cleyre Eugene Dennis Peggy Dennis Josef Dietzgen
Ester Dolgoff Raya Dunayevskaya John F. Dwyer George Engel

11. Voltairine de Cleyre 11-Cleyre_Voltairine_de

(1866-1912) Grave 11, Sector A

Named by her father after the French philosopher, Voltaire de Cleyre spent 4 childhood years in a convent. True to her namesake, she rebelled against convent life and moved to Philadelphia and later Baltimore, where she taught English to immigrant workers. Before the Haymarket Trial, she had believed in the essential justice of American law, but "after this [the trial] I never could," she said. She became outspoken opponent of police censorship and repression, later became a good friend of Emma Goldman.

Goldman called her the "most gifted and brilliant anarchist woman America ever produced." De Cleyre's ideas live on in her many essays and poems, several collections of which are currently in print.

Books include, The First Mayday: The Haymarket Speeches, 1895-1910, Exquisite Rebel: The Essays of Voltairine de Cleyre--Anarchist, Feminist, Genius and Gates of Freedom: Voltairine de Cleyre and the Revolution of the Mind.

12. Eugene Dennis 12-Dennis_Eugene

(1905-1961) Grave 12, Sector B

Eugene Dennis grew up in Seattle. After attending college for a while, he went to sea as a sailor. He became radicalized by his experience and soon became a member of the YCL and the CPUSA. He was a major organizer of the historic nation-wide demonstrations against unemployment on March 6, 1930. Between 1930 and 1934 he and his wife, Peggy did political organizing in Germany, France, England, South Africa, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, and China.

Upon his return to the U.S., Dennis became state secretary of the Communist Party of Wisconsin. Dennis was jailed in 1950 under the Smith Act and served until his release in 1955. In 1959 he suffered a stroke and upon his recovery became the CPUSA's chair. One year later he was diagnosed with incurable cancer. During this period he wrote Ideas They Cannot Jail, one of his several books. His life was subject of a PBS documentary, narrated by his son.

12. Peggy Dennis

(1909-1993) Grave 12, Sector B [ashes interred]

Peggy Dennis was born in 1909 into a Jewish socialist family in Los Angeles.  She joined the YCL and CPUSA when she was 16. Peggy attended a West Coast YCL School in the state of Washington where she met Eugene Dennis, a teacher. By 1928 they became life-long partners though they never formally married. Peggy became pregnant with their first child (Tim) just before Gene went underground to N.Y. and then the Soviet Union in 1931.

They both undertook assignments for the Communist International. Peggy worked in Europe with underground Communist Parties, including in Nazi Germany, bringing them outside assistance. Peggy and Gene returned to the U.S. in 1935, leaving Tim behind, not wanting to call attention to their underground work for the Communist International. They did not see Tim personally until 1960 when he came to the U.S. as an economist with Khrushchev's first UN delegation. When they returned to the U.S. Gene became the chairman of the Wisconsin District of the Communist Party and Peggy the Educational Director. Subsequently, Peggy became a writer for the Daily Worker and its successors. Gene, Jr., was born in 1941. Despite harassment by the FBI, Peggy worked on the defense for Smith Act victims, and on raising money for their families. Later, and after Gene's death in 1961, Peggy continued writing occasional articles for the press. In 1977 she published an autobiography and shortly afterward dropped out of the Party.  Her book is, The Autobiography of an American Communist:  A Personal View of a Political Life: 1925-1975.

13. Josef Dietzgen 13-Deitzgen_Josef

(1828-1888) Grave 13, Sector A

Socialist theorist Josef Dietzgen was born in Germany and first came to the U.S. following the defeat of the 1848 revolution in his homeland. A leather worker by trade, Dietzgen lacked a formal education. In Europe in 1872, Karl Marx introduced him to the Hague Congress of the International Working Men's Association with words, "Here is our philosopher." In 1886, when Chicago anarchist daily Arbeiter-Zeitung editor August Spies was jailed as one of the Haymarket defendants, Dietzgen volunteered to edit the paper in his stead.

It was reported that his philosophical writings were so revered in the homes of miners in South Wales in the 1920's that they were regarded as the Bible. Welsh miners regarded him as the greatest philosopher that ever lived. Two volumes of his writing were published in English translation by Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, The Positive Outcome of Philosophy and Philosophical Essays.

Ester Dolgoff

(1905-1989) [ashes scattered]

A friend of Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Augustin Souchy and other noted anarchists, Esther Dolgoff was active in the anarchist movement starting in her teens. Together with her husband Sam, she was also active in the Industrial Workers of the World. A contributor to many movement publications, and co-editor of the New York anarchist journal Views and Comments she translated important anarchist works into English, most notably Joseph Cohen's history of the Jewish anarchist movement.

14. Raya Dunayevskaya

(1910-1987) Grave 14, Sector F

Russian-born Raya Dunayevskaya, one-time secretary to Leon Trotsky, was among the first to call attention to Marx's early writing and prefigured the 1960's revival of the interest in Hegel. In the monthly News & Letter and other publication she developed the theory of state-capitalism and the philosophy of Marxist-Humanism, focusing, on the "new beginnings" for social transformation indicated by the wildcat strike, the Black revolt and the women's movement.

In later years, Raya emphasized the contemporary relevance of Marx's overlooked Ethnological Notebook's of 1880-82. Her books, translated into many languages, included Marxism and Freedom and Rosa Luxemburg, Women's Liberation and Marx's Philosophy of Revolution.

14. John F. Dwyer 14-Dunayevskaya_Raya

(1912-1989) Grave 14, Sector F

Active in the Socialist Party and later the Socialist Worker's Party, John Dwyer also played an important role in the early Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Shortly after WWII he elaborated a theory of state-capitalism. For some 40 years he was the comrade and companion of Raya Dunayevskaya.

Engel 15. George Engel, Haymarket Martyr

(1836-1887) Grave 15, Sector A

Oldest of the Haymarket Eight, George Engel came to America from Germany in 1866. He worked in Philadelphia as a painter and later worked in a sugar refinery. When he came to Chicago in 1874 he worked at a wagon factory and became active in the labor movement. He opened a toy store in 1876 and became more involved in the Eight Hour Day movement. He was active in the extreme left of the anarchist movement in Chicago. Engel was not present at the Haymarket meeting—his only connection to the event was his attendance at 2 labor meetings several days before. He was hanged on November 11, 1887.

Helena Engel (1835-1904), the widow of George Engel, is buried at Forest Home cemetery in section H, 6 with a family whose last name is Rust. The couple had 2 children.

 

Samuel Fielden Jane Finder Adolph Fischer Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
Esther Abramowitz Foster William Z. Foster Johanna Goldberg Emma Goldman



Fielden 16. Samuel Fielden, Haymarket martyr

(1846-1922) Grave 16, Sector A

Fielden was born into a poor, working-class family in Lancashire, England. As a child he did not go to school but operated a loom in a textile plant. In his late teens he became a Methodist preacher with a very "worldly" orientation, combining the religious zeal that he inherited from his mother with the political bent of his father. He came to New York in 1868 and the moved to Chicago in 1869, where he became active in the labor movement and headed the city's largest atheist group. He eventually became an anarchist and joined as a charter member Chicago's first Teamsters Union. In a brief trip to the south, he saw the brutal enslavement of African-Americans under the sharecropping system after the Civil War, and was greatly disturbed. In the 1870's, Fielden worked for a while dredging the Sag Canal.

It was a strange twist of fate that Fielden was speaking at a meeting on DesPlaines Street when the Haymarket bomb was thrown. He had intended to merely address a group of clothing workers organized by Lucy Parsons and then come home. Instead he was arrested and imprisoned with the other Haymarket martyrs. In 1893 he was pardoned by Governor Altgeld. He later moved to La Veta, Colorado, where one of his admirers had left him a ranch. He died there at age 75, and is believed to be buried there, although county records do not show this. Fielden was married to Sarah and the couple had 2 children. He is the only one of the Haymarket Eight not buried at Forest Home Cemetery.

Jane Finder

(1920- 2005) [ashes scattered]

Jane Finder was proud of her German Jewish ancestry. Her father had been a 'free thinker' and she became interested in socialism from an early age. She grew up in Chicago's south side where she lived for most of her life. Jane earned her Bachelors in Library Sciences from the University of Chicago in 1946, and worked as a librarian for the next 30 years. The culmination of her career was heading the South Shore branch of the Chicago Public Library.

Jane Finder's association with Modern Bookstore began during WWII when one of her brothers asked her to purchase an item at the bookstore and send it to him. She started as a customer and then in the 80's and 90's became a stalwart supporter and volunteer. Her knowledge of history, Marxist philosophy, literature, geography, the civil rights and trade union movements was notable. After Jane retired she continued to volunteer, working for the CPUSA and the Daily World newspaper.

Fischer 17. Adolph Fischer, Haymarket martyr

(1858-1887) Grave 17, Sector A

Adolph Fischer came to the U.S. at age 15 from Germany and worked as an apprentice compositor at a German language newspaper. He was a member of the German Typographical Union in St. Louis, where he was married. He brought his wife, Johanna Pfauntz and children to Chicago in 1883, when he came to work for the anarchist daily Arbeiter-Zeitung and its editor, August Spies. As editor of the journal Der Anarchist, Fischer was active in the extreme left of the anarchist movement in Chicago. He helped plan the Haymarket meeting, but left the assembly before the bomb went off. At the time of his arrest he was foreman of the Arbeiter-Zeitung composing room. He was hanged on November 11, 1887.

Fischer was married to Johanna Pfauntz in 1881 and the couple had 3 children.

18. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 18-Flynn_Elizabeth_Gurley

(1890-1964) Grave 18, Sector A

Flynn, "The Rebel Girl," was born in Concord, New Hampshire, in a poor working-class family. Her mother was a suffragette. Flynn's exposure to the poverty of textile workers in New Hampshire and later New York City had a profound effect on her. In 1906 she began speaking at Socialist Party street meetings and she joined the IWW in 1907.

She soon emerged as an outstanding labor organizer and agitator, displaying stunning leadership abilities in the Lawrence Strike (Massachusetts, 1912) and the Paterson Strike (New Jersey, 1912-13). She had a vibrant, militant style and was widely heralded for her extraordinary energy and courage. Flynn worked closely with Big Bill Haywood and Eugene Debs. She also helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union.

In 1937 she joined the CPUSA. In the McCarthy period she was convicted under the Smith Act and received a three-year prison term. In 1961, after the death of Eugene Dennis, she became the chair of the CPUSA. While traveling in the Soviet Union she became ill. She died in Moscow, where a state funeral – attended by Nikita Khrushchev and other Soviet Party leaders was held. She authored two autobiographical volumes. Her ashes were returned to the U.S. for burial at Forest Home.

Flynn inspired the IWW's Joe Hill to write a song about her, The Rebel Girl: "Yes, her hands may be hardened from labor, And her dress may not be very fine; But a heart in her bosom is beating That is true to her class and her kind. And the grafters in terror are trembling When her spite and defiance she'll hurl; For the only and thoroughbred lady Is the Rebel Girl."

19. Esther Abramowitz Foster 19-Foster_Ester

( ? -1965) Grave 19,  Sector B

Russian born Esther Abramowitz came to the U.S. as a child and worked in a sweatshop in the garment industry in New York City. In 1912 she married William Z. Foster and joined the Foster group in the Socialist Party. She later joined the CPUSA.

For the rest of her life she worked closely with her husband in their common cause of industrial trade unionism, equality and socialism.

20. William Z. Foster 20-Foster_William

(1881-1966) Grave 20, Sector B

Foster is a giant in the history of the U.S. working-class movement. He was born into a poor Irish family in Taunton, Massachusetts, and began work at age seven selling newspapers. He subsequently worked in dozens of other jobs all over the country and on the high seas, many which are described in his book, Pages From a Worker's Life.
Foster was a top-notch union organizer and played a vital part in many strikes.

He worked with the IWW, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Railroad Brotherhood, the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) and various independent unions. He was a founder of the Trade Union Educational League (TUEL) in 1916, and was tireless fighter for industrial unionism and working-class unity.

In 1917, Foster worked with others to organize workers in the meatpacking industry— the first mass-production industry to be organized. This industry was the most difficult to organize because of its multi-national and multi-racial work force. Soon after, with reluctant help from AFL leader Samuel Gompers, Foster tried to organize the steelworkers. The Great Strike of 1919 came under attack by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer as a "Red Menace". The strike was broken when Gompers withdrew his support. Bitter but not defeated, Foster went on to help organize for the United Mine Workers.

In 1921, Foster became a member of the CPUSA and was it's candidate for president in 1924, 1928 and 1932. He played a leading role in the CPUSA for many years, and was a key figure in its reconstitution, after it was temporarily dissolved by Earl Browder in1946. A working-class intellectual, Foster was a prolific author, writing major books, including two autobiographical volumes and scores of pamphlets. Books include; History of the Other Americas, The Great Steel Strike and its Lessons, Negro People in American History and History of the Communist Party USA.

Johanna Goldberg

(1912- 2000) [ashes scattered]

Johanna was a lifelong member(a member for decades) of the Chicago Teachers Union where she supported union rank and file committee. She was a reader and generous supporter of the People's World newspaper and a long time member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

EGoldman 21. Emma Goldman

(1869-1940) Grave 21, Sector B

Emma Goldman was a noted anarchist lecturer, an agitator for free speech and champion of the arts. She was a leading feminist and pioneer advocate of birth control, and an untiring supporter of the Catalonian revolutionists during the Spanish Civil War.

Goldman was born in Russia, surrounded by oppression and injustice. Emigrated to Rochester, New York, she was eighteen years old when Parsons, Spies, Fischer and Engel were hanged. The hanging only deepened her hatred of political repression, and she became an outspoken anarchist.

Marker-B-Goldman Goldman was deported in 1919, and was allowed to return to the U.S. only once in 1935, when hundreds of people had to be turned away from a dinner in her honor at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. J. Edgar Hoover called Goldman and one of her early lovers, Alexander Berkman, "beyond doubt two of the most dangerous anarchists in the country." She died in Canada in 1940. Although she expressed disillusionment with socialism in the Soviet Union she remained a radical to the end of her life. In accordance with her last request, her remains were returned to the U.S. to rest beside the Haymarket Martyrs who had inspired her life. At Emma's burial, Roger Baldwin came to give the eulogy. Emma's lecture to Roger when he was a conservative Harvard graduate had led him to found the American Civil Liberties Union. Her autobiography, My Life, described her remarkable life as an anarchist and revolutionary. The bronze plaque on the gravestone of Emma Goldman was produced by the sculptor Jo Davidson. The stonecutter made a mistake on the year of her death; it was May 14, 1940, not 1939.

21-Goldman_Emma-2

 

 

 

 

 

   

Page 2 of 14

"And I long to see the day when Labor will have the destiny of the nation in her own hands and she will stand as a united force and show the world what the workers can do." --- Mary Harris "Mother" Jones, 1830-1930
 

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